Usage A Bamboo As Media For Cooking Food




by                        : Ravenna
category           : History and Culture 
Sub category  : At Glance (Toraja Specialty Food)



Cook in a bamboo tube for Torajan is a conventional method that always do. It is a typically food of Torajan that called with Piong. There are several types, but usually find in common fiesta is this one. As a traditional cuisine, Pa'piong was popular menu offered for the guests who attend in a custom ceremony. Also with a special drink called tuak (palm wine).
Guests or visitors that present at the ceremony will be placed in "lantang" that is made specifically to receive the guests. First, the guest will be offered with pangngan (for female guests) and cigarettes (for male guests) as a symbol of appreciation from the family of conducting a ceremony for their guests.

Generally, tourist who came in Toraja to see how the processing of the ceremony, whether it is burial (mourning ) or gratitude ceremonies that called "mangrara banua".

In mourning ceremony, numbers of buffalo that slaughterd of tens or even hundreds.

Attractively when slaughtering held, do without tide up buffalo, someone who will do this procession usually is an expert. One hand holding the rein rope and the other holding the machete. While point upwarding buffalo head, with once swing own's machete in neck buffalo.


Ma'Tinggoro Tedong
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This procession is called as Ma'Tinggoro Tedong. After the buffalo fall down usually there are person with sprightly will accommodate buffalo blood with media bamboo. Next, this blood will be use as a mixture of ingredients for cooking pa'piong.


Ma' Tinggoro Tedong
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Piong for community of Toraja is a typical dish of food and have always made at the time of the ceremony somewhere in both rambu tuka ' or rambu solo' ceremony .

There are two types of Piong in general, and in distinction from the making.
1. Piong with the main material of the sticky rice, made at the time gratitude to God ceremony in harvest. Usually called as Pa'piong Bo'bo '.


Pa'Piong Bo'bo'
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2. Piong with the main ingredients of meat and vegetables mixed with a simple mixture. Called as Pa’piong Duku’.
Pa 'piong duku' was given this name more appropriate type of meat used and divided as:
a. Pa'piong duku 'tedong (meat of buffalo)
b. Pa'piong duku 'Bai (meat of pigs)
c. Pa'piong duku 'manuk (meat of chicken)


Pa'Piong Manuk
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d. Pa’piong Bale (meat of fish)

Pa'piong duku 'tedong and duku' bai generally mixed use mayana ( Coleus scutellarioides) leafs and a few places in the Toraja region replace it with Apple Guava (Psidium guajava) leafs, while for pa'piong duku ' manuk use sliced banana tree mixed with coconut grating, for Torajan in Sa’dan (the northern of Toraja) named the pa'piong duku 'manuk as Pa’piong Burak.

Pa'piong cooked in bamboo tubes measure approximately 70 cm with diameter of 6 - 8cm. The concoction of this cuisine is accommodate all the meat that has been prepared in the previous patch in a large vessel, and mixed with some measure of buffalo blood. Stirred together with the added mayana leaves, some other spices, chilli and salt sufficient, after the compound is then inserted in the bamboo tube filled with the ¾ full and then corked with a leaf stalk mayana or banana leaf. Finally , ready to burn on the fireplace that usually made to accommodate 8-10 bamboo of pa'piong. Bamboos based on in a row over the fireplace .


Burning Pa'Piong
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At the time of burning must be controlled so that it does not on fire . Pa'piong that has been cooked and then cooled, cleaned with peeled the skin burnt and ready to presented for the guests.

~o~





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Tau Tau : History and The Making









There are four stages in the manufacture of both Tau Tau Nangka’ or Tau Tau Lampa, namely:
a. Stage Manglelleng Kayu Nangka’ (Jackfruit wood cutting). In stage one must be sacrificed as an offering dogs to cast out the spirits contained in the tree;
b. Stage Massembang Bulo (cut a small bamboo tree) for offering in the manufacture sasjian Tau Tau.
c. Events Dilassak (event making genitals). At the time of making the genitals, held offerings to cut a pig. Pig blood was drawn on the genitals to be formed.
d. The ceremony was Tau Tau's acceptance as a symbol of the dead.

Tau Tau - Toraja
The formal ceremony of the symbol is considered very important because with symbols, the family members always imagined profile of their parents or family members who are gone. Inauguration means inviting agreement family members so that no one of them is denied. In this stage was held slaughtering a pig.

At the time it was not found again The Tau Tau Lampa. Due to Tau Tau Lampa easily damaged and not durable. But process in making the Tau Tau Lampa not different in making Tau Tau Nangka'. Differentiation only on ingredients.

After the ceremony, bamboo as the main material is cut to the foot, body until the head and the hands of Tau Tau. The size of these pieces is uncertain but it could take the average size as follows:
- The size of the body until the head of 60 cm - 70 cm
- The size of the foot between 40 cm - 50 cm
- The size of the hand between 40 cm - 50 cm
- The size of the upper shoulder between 20 cm - 30 cm
- The size of the lower shoulder 20 cm - 30 cm

To make one's face, then taken stem nut tree (Kalosi) and then sliced to resemble a round face. Eyes, nose and mouth formed by way of a hole. After the face and the part of face is formed, then attached to the bamboo formed previously. The head then given a twist of grass weeds (aka. Ria). Hair is taken from the feathers palm trees. Pieces of bamboo which form the legs, body, hands and shoulders covered with weeds. To strengthen the structure, used rope fibers to tie. For Tau Tau Lampa distinguish between men and women is part of the head difference. Men always attached two buffalo horns above his ears, while for women do not wear horns.

Tau Tau - Toraja

Tau Tau Nangka’
At the time the ceremony Rapasan level, sometimes Tau Tau Nangka’ is replaced with Tuang Tuang that is Tau Tau made from pieces of small bamboo. Sometimes also a character created for a Tau Tau Nangka’ and Tuang Tuang simultaneously.

Tuang Tuang in the making also have stages of the ceremony as follows:
a. Event Massembang Bulo (small bamboo cutting)
When the event was held so sacrificed a chicken (feathers should be red) and a dog. Animal sacrifice is not eaten but used as offerings to ward off the spirits that have the tree.
b. Events Mangrere ' Bulo (bamboo cutting ceremony)
In the event that sacrificed a pig. Animal sacrifice was partly eaten by the participants of the ceremony and there is a special section set aside for offering to deata (god).
c. Events Manto'tok Bulo (pierce the pieces of bamboo)
When it was held, sacrificed a pig again.
d. Events Ma'sa'bu '(the inauguration)
At this time, Tuang Tuang certified as a symbol of the dead. In the event that sacrificed a pig.
e. Events Mantoke 'Bulo (event hanging Tuang Tuang)
At this stage, sacrificed a chicken red fur.

It is said that the provisions outlined by Tamboro Langi ' as place to put Tau Tau Nangka' is at Liang (grave stone which held the body), whereas for the Tuang Tuang treated the same function as Tau Tau Nangka', placed in Alang (rice granary) .
Rules, although not written, but considered a necessity and if the offense would get a penalty.

Like other megalitis community, every behavior and material culture of the Toraja people will always be full of meaning from another interconnected. Similarly, the use of Jackfruit wood and bamboo as material Tau Tau, all of them have specific meaning. Jackfruit wood is selected as the material for Tau Tau Nangka’ because it has a white sap that is personified by the blood of god. Blood Gods is white in comprehension.

Because of the high nobility was the incarnation of the god, as a manifestation, so Tau Tau should be made of Jackfruit wood. Myth of trees for the Toraja showed similarities with the myth of the tree for the Asmat tribe in Papua. In Asmat, timber trees are not only used for equipment but a source of the belief that every human being can be equated with tree. Roots compared to the human foot, trunk compared with the body's, branches compared with the hand and the fruit equated with a human head.

Not all regions in Toraja applicable rules regarding creation of Tau Tau. Toraja society, there are three important toponym recognized and believed to be the incarnation of the god, they are Mengkendek, Sangngalla ' and Makale. Third toponyms are usually known by the confederation Tallu Lembangna. Therefore, other Toraja people should not make Tau Tau Nangka’ because it's not a god or not the incarnation of nobility.

Actually there is one other area besides Tallu Lembangna ever be allowed to make Tau Tau Nangka’ but now no longer allowed. That allowed to created is Tau Tau Lampa (Tau Tau from bamboo) because of the acts violating the custom. Talion area or community name with the title called Sangpiak Padang, now included in Saluputti districts.
The story begins when a nobleman of this region died and they made Tau Tau Nangka' as the procession Aluk Pitung Sa'bu Pitu Ratu’ Pitung Pulo Pitu (Aluk 7777) in three regions of Tallu Lembangna. The ceremony went smoothly and it’s over. Tau Tau Nangka’ of the nobleman to be stored in Liang.

Onother day, one of the royal family need a tool to be used to work in the fields. Because not find the equipment, he was taken the Tau Tau that placed in Liang and used it as tools to cultivate his fields. The foot of the Tau Tau sharpened and used it for digging. At that time, seen by the people and reported to community leaders. At the meeting between community leaders Toraja it was decided that the acts violated customary, and for the Talion area imposed sanctions that for an aristocrat who died must not be made Tau Tau Nangka’ but must Tau Tau Lampa.

~o~
 



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Tau Tau In Toraja Culture System







category : History and Culture, Art
(Executive summary about tau-tau by Army Lenggo and M. Nur)


Torajan is a society Devotees Ancestors, and is often referred to as a museum of ethnography. Archaeological heritage, behavioral and philosophy are reflecting a traditional society with sincerity and continue maintaining its tradition from generation to generation, although its people professes Christianity and Islam. Cultural resistance is clearly defined at the tradition Rambu Solo ' , because in practice there is the habit of giving and receiving is considered a natural thing, and not a cultural conspiracy.

The resistance of Toraja Cultural more easily explained as a result of geographical isolation, causing the Toraja people became believer Aluk Todolo as beliefs that have been integrated with all aspects of life.
One of the interesting habits of mind and reflect the actual megalitic is making Tau Tau (ancestral statues made of wood) .



Tau Tau
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Making a statue or sculpture is a universal customs, both in Indonesia and the Pacific. But the statues built to worship the ancestors look different with Tau Tau found in Tana Toraja, generally these statues are made of stone while in Toraja made of wood.


Tau Tau made of Wood
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Until now no comprehensive studies about it and when the custom started. Clearly that the Toraja community in terms of archaeological does not have a high skill in the art of stone carving.

ToManurung ( The Advocate )

By Toraja society, mythology underlying making Tau Tau was Aluk Pitung Sa'bu Pitu Ratu’ Pitung Pulo Pitu (aka. Aluk 7777), the teachings brought by a figure from the Heaven called Tamboro Langi' (Drums of Heaven).

Tamboro Langi ' relied as To Manurung descended from Heaven to lead and teach his people. There are three places reliably to be the incarnation locations, Makale, Ullin and Kandora.

In Kandora, Tamboro Langi ' for temporary residence. Soon after, he married a beautiful woman who recounted suddenly emergence from swirl of water at the confluence of the rivers Sa'dan and Maulu. Beautiful woman named Sanda Bilik.

Prior to ascended back into the sky and leaving his wife on earth, Tamboro Langi ' stop at Mount Sinaji where there is a market called Sampean and that's where he gives strict orders, all the customary rules should be firmly held. One of the point that the abandonment is a matter of making Tau Tau.
The doctrine of Tamboro Langi’ about making Tau Tau based on the material, and can be divided into two types namely :
• Tau Tau Nangka’
• Tau Tau Lampa

Both types of Tau Tau is highly related to social stratification. Tau Tau Nangka’ created specifically for the high nobility (Tana' Bulaan), whereas Tau Tau Lampa intended for the medium (Tana' Bassi). The name of the ritual also distinguished, the ritual in making Tau Tau Nangka’ called as funeral ceremony Rapasan level, while the naming ceremony for making Tau Tau Lampa is called as Di DoyaTedong or Di Batang level.

The most fundamental difference between the two is the amount of the buffalo that sacrificed. Rapasan level should be more than seven buffalos and more shall depend on the family's ability, while for the level of Di Doya Tedong provided enough five to seven water buffaloes.

Very believed by the Toraja people that the party organization with a lot of animal sacrifice can earlier their ancestors became To Membali Puang (Deity).
By the community Toraja, Aluk To Dolo is a collective beliefs. The concept of collectivity is very strong in their spiritual life is at its largest portion of funeral rites. In the concept of death, the corpse does not represent own individual or family. Bodies are considered as belonging to the Toraja society in general. Giving and receiving is a must in the implementation of a ceremony of death.
Although already professes Christianity and Islam, the Toraja people still believe that the festive party will causing the body earlier reached to the other world (aka. Puya). A festive party requires expenditure of energy, goods, time and a great individual as well. Thus, the burden of ceremony can not be handled by the family of the dead.

Tau Tau that is one part of the procession must also contain the values of collectivity.



Tau Tau on The Cliff : Stone Graves
Pic Source :Click Here to see Full Size



Meaning in the placement and attitude of Tau Tau affirm the value of the collectivity. Placement Tau Tau at the carved cliff and facing the east (mountain Sinaji) which lies underneath the area of rice fields are intended as a request to the welfare of the community life. The fields must be productive and ancestral spirits would give fertility. After harvest, the people made offerings through ritual. It is an agreement between the Toraja people with their ancestors. Thus, Tau Tau as a manifestation of the ancestors is considered alive. Death is not understood as a death in the Islamic teachings. Toraja society like other megalithic people think that death is not a fundamental change for humans.

There are three functions of Tau Tau for the Toraja.
1. Tau Tau is the embodiment of the ancestors or relatives who have died
2. As a symbol of fertility and life
3. As fields and village guards

~o~








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What's The Unique Custom That Toraja Have ?




category   : History and Culture, Tourism





There are many attraction you will find when visiting the great high land of Toraja, some of them just performed when the local society carrying out a big event of their custom such as
Mangrara banua (classified in Rambu Tuka'/ Gratitude Ceremonies) or when they do the Grieve Ceremony (Rambu Solo') that they usually called as pesta.

In these event always performed numerous unique attraction that still follow the
pure custom of their ancestors.

In addition you must know if these always done in period June - December or during the National Vacation in Indonesia, because in this time all the families can come together in a place.

So,what is Mangrara Banua ?

Banua was mean a house, and mangrara have mean purify with blood. After a Tongkonan House had been developed or renovation, must be ceremonied with a custom ritual as called as mangrara banua.

As the conviction (Aluk Todolo) belief if all material in the world have a spirit like a human, likewise Tongkonan (kindred House) have a spirit . In eternity, they are presence too. If Tongkonan in the real world good cared by the generation of the creator, so, the spirit of tongkonan will be good together with the spirit of the creator, and the generation who care for the house will be blessed by Puang Matua.

The process of Mangrara Banua :

Overall the event divided in two phases, i.e.:

1. During the begining of development

2. Gratitude to God after development is completed

Each activity preceded with a ritual that has been determined and always implement from one generation to the other, namely: Ma'pallin and Manglika ' Biang.

After the two ritual is done, continued with sacrificing a chicken or offering pigs.

Phase I: The sequence related to the ceremonial stage of development a Tongkonan, include:

1. Ma'Pallin ; drive away evil, do with sacrificing a chicken, that is self-consecration ritual ( purify of soul).

2. Manglika 'Biang ; ritual to invoke blessings and presence of Puang Matua and the gods, performed on the same day with Ma'Pallin, more chicken as a sacrifice.

3. Manglelleng Kayu ; ritual before felling down trees which is used for development Tongkonan. Sacrifice a rooster.

According to legend, when people still live in the sky and want to build the first house, the man went to the forest and chop down trees.Every times filled, the tree slide into the water and disappear. The trees appears again after Puang Matua give the advice to holds the ritual , it's like a ceremonial meal.

4. Ma'Patassu 'Kayu ; removing the timber from the forest, before the timber was taken, a rooster is needed to sacrificed.

5. Ma'Tamben ; assembling a simple design of the body house without pole (before construction begins). Sacrificed a chicken. Sometimes there is also a pig.

6. Mangrondon; dismantle old buildings Tongkonan (if the development is the renovation or repair of existing Tongkonan).

7. Manglo'po 'Patongkon; making holes at main pillar, that is a pillar of the middle (a'riri posi') as the first step of development. At this section, the building experts (to manarang) will butcher a pig.

8. Ma 'Pabendan ; Assembling the poles . This ritual do with a pig sacrifice.

9. MangOno ' ; Compiling material of the roof. It is a pieces of bamboo that split in two in order to easily installation process.

10. Ma 'Palumbang pata'; assembling the pata' (lengthwise wood in the middle of the house) that is placed above the pole (a'riri posi'), no sacrifice.

11. Ma 'kemun Rinding ; assembling the wall, no sacrifice.

12. Ma'Papa ; a pig sacrificed before the roof fited up. In addition to offering , some pigs butchered as a wage matters for workers who install the roof.

Phase II: The sequence of ceremony after the development is completed, which is known as mangrara banua. The ceremony began with the ritual:

1. Ma'Pallin

2. Manglika 'Biang

3. Mangrimpung or Mangrapu; all the family, together go to a place outside the area of Tongkonan, share the ritual offerings to the spirits of their ancestors, seeking prayer and blessing. Sacrifice a pig.

4. Ma'Pakande To Matua; feeding ritual (offering) to the ancestor in the west side of Tongkonan, a ceremony that is also always done in other ceremonies. When is held, the people believe if the ancestors presence and settle down in Tongkonan.

5. After that, Mangrara Banua begins. In this time, family and the guests who represent the other Tongkonan, already in the location of the ceremony.

6. On the first day, ma'tarampak implemented, its mean installing the roof symbolically, led by to indo '(= someone who regarded as a matriarchal in this society of a meaningful as the source of life, paddy / rice). Slaughtering one or two pig in front of Tongkonan , and the meat will be distributed by to indo'. In the night, passomba 'tedong (worship to the buffalo) will be do. But before starting, usually, manimbong and ma'dandan will be danced (and will be continued in the next day). The doer of Passomba' Tedong is a Toparengnge ' from a Tongkonan which is a pair of Tongkonan that is ceremonied. Usually in convey the words in passomba tedong there is a Tominaa who replaces To parengnge '.

Passomba Tedong preceded with ma'tambuli, which is seeking permission to the gods of the land , to serve patok in form of sandalwood in the North side (slightly to the East) to the chain Buffalo. The another doer of the custom is a Tomangrande Londong (which holds the rooster). This custom officer is standing on the side of Tominaa who revere the buffalo while tote a Sella '(the type of rooster with red-furred, white-legged and ear).

Passomba Tedong went on from twilight in the first day till the dawn is breaking on the perform day (aka.allona) because the script of family tree must be read and very long.

7. On the second day (The perform Day) held a ritual is called ma'papa.

The ceremony is led by Toparengnge Sokkong Bayu that praise (mangimbo) on page of Tongkonan.

[The mean of sokkong bayu actually the holder of the highest degree in a customary area (aka.lembang = village), which is recognized as a head of the customs, both as religious leaders and government. But understanding is also often refers to highest level of Tongkonan in a family of tongkonan so Toparengnge '(= indigenous stakeholders) from that Tongkonan regarded as a sokkong bayu].

In Tongkonan, datu baine (the second Toparengnge') have a duty to say prayers of adoration all at once serving a ritual offering that put on banana leafs (called as ma'pesung).

If the previously rituals are basically done by the family who care for the Tongkonan (to untokei 'buria'), then at the ritual ma'papa whole the great family of Tongkonan come together and bring pigs to sacrifice.

The Stretchers (lettoan) of pigs are decorated and processed entrance to the location of the ceremony. The atmosphere is very gay. And usually, families divisible in groups according to the branch from the descendants of the founder of Tongkonan.

Division is visible ,both when entering the yard and at the time they were in the ritual location. Beside pigs as a form of donations, each group usually tries to bring the entourage of arts such as to ma'gellu ', to manganda', to ma'bugi ', and to manimbong.

In the morning, ma'gellu ' will be danced, a performance that can only danced on the ceremonies associated with life. In the midday, women form a line and sing along while their bodies form a swing nature dance experience (ma'dandan or ma'ore'-ore '). On the day, the pigs slaughtered, there is only slaughter one pig, there is also up to the hundreds. The pork chop distributed to the guests and the people who attend, and for the building experts (to manarang) and whomsoever involved in the ceremony (to ma'pesung, to mangimbo, to mano'bo and others) get a certain part .

8. On the third day held ma'bubung. Tomano'bo move back and forth above ridge while holding the torch. Crown made of leaves put on head and he was wearing long robe, other hand holding the machete . At peak of ritual, he will be throw the torch from the ridge into the tray on the ground. So after tomano'bo finished its work, actually finished entire ceremony of mangrara banua. Next ritual, which is mantanan sendana (implant the sandalwood), only to sign that has been held mangrara ceremonies for the Tongkonan that mentioned above.

~o~







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" ALUK TODOLO"



category          : History and Culture
Sub category  : Religion
(courtesy of Sejarah dan Budaya Toraja; by Andi Fatmawaty Umar)



Before Torajans profess Christianity, and Islamic, have been known a belief in animism that from their ancestors called Aluk Todolo.
After the entry of Christian in this region. The situation of community life gradually began to change, especially in attitudes and way of life, although not entirely leave the setting of a traditional life.

The presence of religion in people's lives still remain side by side with derived habits of their ancestors. Such as the belief about the good days and bad, belief in causal of catastrophe when get travel, to plant rice and do the ceremony.
In the plurality always visible religious harmony does not occur and the impact of religion and belief in it.
This is caused by the feeling of mutual understanding and respect at the same time respect the trust between them.
The mutual respect existence is also visible on the nature of mutual help, and they visit each other, especially in the feast.

Before insertion of religion, whether Christian or Islamic, Toraja people follow the belief that ancestors are inherited from generation to generation until now. The society believe that everything in this world have a life (Harahap 1952:16) even more human lives continue to live even though they have died, usually given food, drink and even have it delivered every day to eat.
This indicates that they believe as though the dead are alive because this always been the need to eat and drink or even have died (aka.ma'pakande tomate).

Spirituality hereditary and is considered a religious belief in original and better known by the name Aluk Todolo.
According to LT Tangdilintin , the meaning of Aluk Todolo; Aluk is religion / rules, and Todolo is the ancestor.
So Aluk Todolo means ancestor religion.
Aluk Todolo is a form of animism the belief that each thought that the stone or objects have any power, and is one of the religious system that has been traditionally held by the residents of Toraja since IX century– BC and are still inherited from generation to generation until now.
Rante (Menhir Stone) _ Inheritance of Aluk To Dolo Toraja

According Tangdilintin, Aluk Todolo is one of faith or conviction that is revealed by Puang Matua (the Creator).
Rules (aka.aluk) that passed on Datu Laukku which contains the religious rules that people and all the occupant of this earth must worship.
Worship is at Puang Matua , the Creator, as expressed in the form of a dish. Puang Matua as the Creator gives power to the deata-deata (the custodian).

Human practice is required in all the world and worshipPuang Matua and Deata-Deata . AlukTodolo teachings the cult to both supreme deities above.
In Aluk Todolo known three groups of deata, namely:

1. Deata Tangnga Langi '; affairs in the sky

2. Deata Kapadanganna; affairs of the Earth

3. Deata Tangngana Padang; affairs all over the land fill.

In addition to the three classes of Deata, Aluk Todolo teachings to follow provisions appropriate point in religion (aka.sukaran aluk), then people need to worship to the third rule, namely:

1. Puang Matua

2. Deata-Deata

3. To Membali Puang

Based on the third of Deata is mentioned above is clear that the Aluk Todolo teachings conseptual structure of the gods who arranged vertically.
Puang Matua on the one hand be seen as the supreme deity as the creator of all nature. Meanwhile, on the other hand deata- deata as caretaker, authority, arrange life of the creation of Puang Matua.

When Puang Matua as supreme deity or the deity who is considered the Creator of all nature is believed reside in the north side (aka.karopokna langi '), then the deata-deata considered reside in the eastern (aka.mata allo). This concept shows that Puang Matua not only have the function and role that is different from the deities, but the sit is different.

How to worship to them, by the Aluk Todolo done with the dish. With the offerings in the different way according to the levels of each:

a. Worship to Puang Matua (the Creator), as the highest ceremony with slaughtering the animals.

b. Tribute to the affairs that is intended to deata-deata (deities) and the present offering.

c. Offering to To Membali Puang (supervisor) made by his descendants to commemorate the spirit of the ancestors .

The three elements of worship as described above, based on the teachings and rules that apply. Rules and teachings orient on faith system.
In realization this ceremony supported by community group that passed on from one generation to the other.
~o~



The Carvings







Passura'/Ukiran (Carvings) is a decorative and sculpture forms in Toraja architecture. Toraja carving (Passura'/ukiran) always used in Tongkonan, and they have more type, mean and name for each one. The pictures below show some of the types of Toraja carvings in the cultural life of Toraja people :

Toraja Carvings [Ukiran/Passura']


Pa' Bungkang Tasik
 Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :
Pa'Bungkang Tasik

Pa' Bulintong Siteba'
 Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :
Pa'Bulintong Siteba' 

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 Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] : 
  Pa'Tangke Lumu' 

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :  
Pa'Tedong Tumuru

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :
  Pa'Sekong Sala

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa'Re'po' Sangbua' 

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] : 
 Pa'Erong

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 Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] : 
 Pa'Boko' Komba Kalua' 

Pa' Sala'bi'
Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]: 
 Pa'Sala'bi' 

Pa' Sepu' Torongkong
Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa' Sepu' Torongkong

Pa' Kollong Bu'ku'
Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] : 
Pa' Manik-Manik

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa'Kangkung 

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa'Kollong Bu'ku'

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 Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] : 
Pa'Bombo Uai 

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa'Ulu Gayang 

Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] : 
Pa'Pollo' Gayang

Bulu Londong
Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :  
Pa'Tanduk Re'pe' 

Pa' Tedong
Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa'Tedong 

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :  
Pa'Bulu Londong 

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :  
Pa'Sulun Sangbua 

Pa' Kadang Pao
Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa'Kadang Pao 

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Ne' Limbongan

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Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja]
Pa'Barre Allo

pa'kapuk baka
Toraja Carving [Ukiran Toraja] :
Pa'Kapu' Baka






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Toraja Carvings







By   : L.T. Tangdilintin  [Tongkonan(Rumah Adat Toraja),1976]
Category     :  Art/Carving



Toraja carving (Passura') are complement of house building (Tongkonan), and as a symbol that has a specific meaning. Carving is a decorative and sculpture forms in Toraja architecture, which is divided into 4 groups according to the role and meaning of each of these carvings, which are:

Garonto' Passura' (Fundamental Carvings)
That have the role as a symbols of the basic life of Toraja people.
Consist of :

  • Pa' Barre Allo
Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Barre Allo

  •  Pa' Manuk Londong
Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Bulu Londong
  • Pa' Tedong
Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Tedong
  •  Pa' Sussuk
Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Sussuk


Passura' To Dolo (Head Carvings)
That symbolizes the life guidance, rules of life, worship and equipment for the ceremonies event; they are :

  • Pa' Erong
  • Pa' Ulu Karua
  • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Ulu Karua


  • Pa' Doti Langi'
  • Pa' Kadang Pao
  • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Kadang Pao
  • Pa' Barana'
  • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Barana'
  • Pa' Lolo Tabang
  • Pa' Daun Bolu
  • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Daun Bolu
  • Pa' Daun Paria
  • Pa' Bombo Uai
  • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Bombo Uai
  • Pa' Kapu' Baka 


Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Kapu' Baka
    • Pa' Tangke Lumu'
    • Pa' Bungkang Tasik
    • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Bungkang Tasik
    • Pa' Lolo Paku
    • Pa' Tangki' Pattung
    • Pa' Katik
    • Pa' Talinga Tedong, etc

    Passura' Malolle (Carving of Development)
    The carvings that symbolizes development and association of human life, that can be used in all part of place where the carved, like a house, barn, equipment and trappings in ceremonial.
    Also, most use in carved commonly house and Tongkonan that not have a custom role (Tongkonan Batu A'riri).

    The carvings that include of this group, are :
    • Pa' Sala'bi'
    • Pa' Tanduk Ra'pe
    • Pa' Takku Pare
    • Pa' Bunga Kaliki
    • Pa' Poya Mundan
    • Pa' Bulintang Siteba'
    • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Bulintong Siteba'
    • Pa' Bulintang Situru'
    • Pa' Karrang Longa
    • Pa' Papan Kandaure
    • Passura' Passulan
    • Pa' Sepu' To Rongkong
    • Ukiran Toraja - Pa' Sepu' To Rongkong
    Passura' Pa'barean
    That symbolize the excitement and have a mass or plural motif, many used in ceremonial equipment and trappings in decorative arts of Toraja; consist of :
    • Pa' Manik Bu'ku'
    • Pa' Ara' Dena'
    • Pa' Komba Kalua'
    • Pa' Barra'-Barra'
    • Pa' Bua Kapa'
    • Pa' Gayang
    Those above, was part of types of Toraja carvings that estimated numbers is about 80 and not all at once installed in an object.
    But sometimes only a few of them are placed that significance in accordance with its function.

    There are still one type of carving that is not behind when installation, namely Pa' Bannangan. This type is stright line and serve as a barrier, or as section of any engraving.

    To sculpt with decorative Toraja multiformity, just take 4 kind of colors, as follow :
    - Malotong (black)
    - Mabusa (white)
    - Mararang (red)
    - Mariri (Yellow)
    and, these colors have meaning apart.
    ~o~



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