Usage A Bamboo As Media For Cooking Food

by                        : Ravenna
category           : History and Culture 
Sub category  : At Glance (Toraja Specialty Food)

Cook in a bamboo tube for Torajan is a conventional method that always do. It is a typically food of Torajan that called with Piong. There are several types, but usually find in common fiesta is this one. As a traditional cuisine, Pa'piong was popular menu offered for the guests who attend in a custom ceremony. Also with a special drink called tuak (palm wine).
Guests or visitors that present at the ceremony will be placed in "lantang" that is made specifically to receive the guests. First, the guest will be offered with pangngan (for female guests) and cigarettes (for male guests) as a symbol of appreciation from the family of conducting a ceremony for their guests.

Generally, tourist who came in Toraja to see how the processing of the ceremony, whether it is burial (mourning ) or gratitude ceremonies that called "mangrara banua".

In mourning ceremony, numbers of buffalo that slaughterd of tens or even hundreds.

Attractively when slaughtering held, do without tide up buffalo, someone who will do this procession usually is an expert. One hand holding the rein rope and the other holding the machete. While point upwarding buffalo head, with once swing own's machete in neck buffalo.

Ma'Tinggoro Tedong
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This procession is called as Ma'Tinggoro Tedong. After the buffalo fall down usually there are person with sprightly will accommodate buffalo blood with media bamboo. Next, this blood will be use as a mixture of ingredients for cooking pa'piong.

Ma' Tinggoro Tedong
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Piong for community of Toraja is a typical dish of food and have always made at the time of the ceremony somewhere in both rambu tuka ' or rambu solo' ceremony .

There are two types of Piong in general, and in distinction from the making.
1. Piong with the main material of the sticky rice, made at the time gratitude to God ceremony in harvest. Usually called as Pa'piong Bo'bo '.

Pa'Piong Bo'bo'
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2. Piong with the main ingredients of meat and vegetables mixed with a simple mixture. Called as Pa’piong Duku’.
Pa 'piong duku' was given this name more appropriate type of meat used and divided as:
a. Pa'piong duku 'tedong (meat of buffalo)
b. Pa'piong duku 'Bai (meat of pigs)
c. Pa'piong duku 'manuk (meat of chicken)

Pa'Piong Manuk
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d. Pa’piong Bale (meat of fish)

Pa'piong duku 'tedong and duku' bai generally mixed use mayana ( Coleus scutellarioides) leafs and a few places in the Toraja region replace it with Apple Guava (Psidium guajava) leafs, while for pa'piong duku ' manuk use sliced banana tree mixed with coconut grating, for Torajan in Sa’dan (the northern of Toraja) named the pa'piong duku 'manuk as Pa’piong Burak.

Pa'piong cooked in bamboo tubes measure approximately 70 cm with diameter of 6 - 8cm. The concoction of this cuisine is accommodate all the meat that has been prepared in the previous patch in a large vessel, and mixed with some measure of buffalo blood. Stirred together with the added mayana leaves, some other spices, chilli and salt sufficient, after the compound is then inserted in the bamboo tube filled with the ¾ full and then corked with a leaf stalk mayana or banana leaf. Finally , ready to burn on the fireplace that usually made to accommodate 8-10 bamboo of pa'piong. Bamboos based on in a row over the fireplace .

Burning Pa'Piong
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At the time of burning must be controlled so that it does not on fire . Pa'piong that has been cooked and then cooled, cleaned with peeled the skin burnt and ready to presented for the guests.


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Tau Tau : History and The Making

There are four stages in the manufacture of both Tau Tau Nangka’ or Tau Tau Lampa, namely:
a. Stage Manglelleng Kayu Nangka’ (Jackfruit wood cutting). In stage one must be sacrificed as an offering dogs to cast out the spirits contained in the tree;
b. Stage Massembang Bulo (cut a small bamboo tree) for offering in the manufacture sasjian Tau Tau.
c. Events Dilassak (event making genitals). At the time of making the genitals, held offerings to cut a pig. Pig blood was drawn on the genitals to be formed.
d. The ceremony was Tau Tau's acceptance as a symbol of the dead.

Tau Tau - Toraja
The formal ceremony of the symbol is considered very important because with symbols, the family members always imagined profile of their parents or family members who are gone. Inauguration means inviting agreement family members so that no one of them is denied. In this stage was held slaughtering a pig.

At the time it was not found again The Tau Tau Lampa. Due to Tau Tau Lampa easily damaged and not durable. But process in making the Tau Tau Lampa not different in making Tau Tau Nangka'. Differentiation only on ingredients.

After the ceremony, bamboo as the main material is cut to the foot, body until the head and the hands of Tau Tau. The size of these pieces is uncertain but it could take the average size as follows:
- The size of the body until the head of 60 cm - 70 cm
- The size of the foot between 40 cm - 50 cm
- The size of the hand between 40 cm - 50 cm
- The size of the upper shoulder between 20 cm - 30 cm
- The size of the lower shoulder 20 cm - 30 cm

To make one's face, then taken stem nut tree (Kalosi) and then sliced to resemble a round face. Eyes, nose and mouth formed by way of a hole. After the face and the part of face is formed, then attached to the bamboo formed previously. The head then given a twist of grass weeds (aka. Ria). Hair is taken from the feathers palm trees. Pieces of bamboo which form the legs, body, hands and shoulders covered with weeds. To strengthen the structure, used rope fibers to tie. For Tau Tau Lampa distinguish between men and women is part of the head difference. Men always attached two buffalo horns above his ears, while for women do not wear horns.

Tau Tau - Toraja

Tau Tau Nangka’
At the time the ceremony Rapasan level, sometimes Tau Tau Nangka’ is replaced with Tuang Tuang that is Tau Tau made from pieces of small bamboo. Sometimes also a character created for a Tau Tau Nangka’ and Tuang Tuang simultaneously.

Tuang Tuang in the making also have stages of the ceremony as follows:
a. Event Massembang Bulo (small bamboo cutting)
When the event was held so sacrificed a chicken (feathers should be red) and a dog. Animal sacrifice is not eaten but used as offerings to ward off the spirits that have the tree.
b. Events Mangrere ' Bulo (bamboo cutting ceremony)
In the event that sacrificed a pig. Animal sacrifice was partly eaten by the participants of the ceremony and there is a special section set aside for offering to deata (god).
c. Events Manto'tok Bulo (pierce the pieces of bamboo)
When it was held, sacrificed a pig again.
d. Events Ma'sa'bu '(the inauguration)
At this time, Tuang Tuang certified as a symbol of the dead. In the event that sacrificed a pig.
e. Events Mantoke 'Bulo (event hanging Tuang Tuang)
At this stage, sacrificed a chicken red fur.

It is said that the provisions outlined by Tamboro Langi ' as place to put Tau Tau Nangka' is at Liang (grave stone which held the body), whereas for the Tuang Tuang treated the same function as Tau Tau Nangka', placed in Alang (rice granary) .
Rules, although not written, but considered a necessity and if the offense would get a penalty.

Like other megalitis community, every behavior and material culture of the Toraja people will always be full of meaning from another interconnected. Similarly, the use of Jackfruit wood and bamboo as material Tau Tau, all of them have specific meaning. Jackfruit wood is selected as the material for Tau Tau Nangka’ because it has a white sap that is personified by the blood of god. Blood Gods is white in comprehension.

Because of the high nobility was the incarnation of the god, as a manifestation, so Tau Tau should be made of Jackfruit wood. Myth of trees for the Toraja showed similarities with the myth of the tree for the Asmat tribe in Papua. In Asmat, timber trees are not only used for equipment but a source of the belief that every human being can be equated with tree. Roots compared to the human foot, trunk compared with the body's, branches compared with the hand and the fruit equated with a human head.

Not all regions in Toraja applicable rules regarding creation of Tau Tau. Toraja society, there are three important toponym recognized and believed to be the incarnation of the god, they are Mengkendek, Sangngalla ' and Makale. Third toponyms are usually known by the confederation Tallu Lembangna. Therefore, other Toraja people should not make Tau Tau Nangka’ because it's not a god or not the incarnation of nobility.

Actually there is one other area besides Tallu Lembangna ever be allowed to make Tau Tau Nangka’ but now no longer allowed. That allowed to created is Tau Tau Lampa (Tau Tau from bamboo) because of the acts violating the custom. Talion area or community name with the title called Sangpiak Padang, now included in Saluputti districts.
The story begins when a nobleman of this region died and they made Tau Tau Nangka' as the procession Aluk Pitung Sa'bu Pitu Ratu’ Pitung Pulo Pitu (Aluk 7777) in three regions of Tallu Lembangna. The ceremony went smoothly and it’s over. Tau Tau Nangka’ of the nobleman to be stored in Liang.

Onother day, one of the royal family need a tool to be used to work in the fields. Because not find the equipment, he was taken the Tau Tau that placed in Liang and used it as tools to cultivate his fields. The foot of the Tau Tau sharpened and used it for digging. At that time, seen by the people and reported to community leaders. At the meeting between community leaders Toraja it was decided that the acts violated customary, and for the Talion area imposed sanctions that for an aristocrat who died must not be made Tau Tau Nangka’ but must Tau Tau Lampa.


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